We received this lab report on November 24th.
Gross Post Mortem
On external examination the llama was in poor body condition. Internally there was an old fibrous adhesion of the ventral aspect of the right anteroventral lung lobe to the pericardial sac. There was marked petechial hemorrhage of all serous surfaces in the thoracic cavity. Coronary and pericardial fat stores were adequate. There was approximately 25 ml. of yellowish fluid in the pericardial sac containing small yellow clots. There was marked petechial hemorrhage of the inner surface of the pericardial sac, the epicardium and the endocardium. There was prominent hemorrhage involving the coronary grooves and surrounding the coronary vessels on the epicardial surgace of the heart. in the abdominal cavity there was marked patechial hemorrhage of all seresal surfaces. Abdominal fat stores were reduced. Several pinpoint ulcers were found in the proximal fundic mucosa of C3 near the junction with the squamous epithelium. The liver was diffusely pale on both parietal and cut surfaces. Both kidneys were exhibiting bulging of the cortex on cut surface. There was marked mottling and streaking of the cortex and the colour varied from yellowish tan to dark red. Several small yellow calculi were found in the renal pelves. There was no urine in the bladder. The gastrointestinal content was normal. There was multifocal reddening of the Peyer’s patches in the distal ileum.
Marked generalized petechiation and hemorrhage. Samples were sent for toxicology, bacteriology and histology.
All tissues are moderately autolyzed.
Liver There is diffuse moderate to marked hepatocellular cytoplasmic vacuolation.The cytoplasmic vacuolation is most severe in periacinar to midzonal portions of the acini. There is a mild increse in the number of neutrophils within sinusoids. There is mild cholestasis. There are scattered occasional small foci of mixed inflammatory cells within the patenchyma consissssting predominantly of macrophages and small numbers of neutrophils. Occasionally a degenerating hepatocyte can be observed. There is increased fibrous tissue in portal tracts with occasional bridging fibrosis. There is mild proliferation of bile ductules. In some areas small fibrous septae can be seen extending from the portal tracts into the surrounding sinusoids.
Spleen There is mild acute lympholysis in germinal centers.
Lung There is moderate to marked generalized pulmonary congestion.
Skeletal Muscle There is mild myofibre atrophy.
Heart There are multifocal areas of moderate to marked subendocardial and epicarcial hemorrhage.
All other tissues No significant findings.
Marked hepiatic lipidosis with mild chronic fibrosing cholangitis.
The hepatic lipidosis was severe in degree and associated with a fibrosing chalangitis and cholestasis. These hepatic changes would certainly explain the low albumin levels, the muscle atrophy and the history of weight loss and anorexia. Hepatic lipidosis is a poorly defined syndrome which has been reported in llamas. It appears that the syndrome commences with fat mobilization and accumulation of fat within hepatocytes. This leads to a decrease in hepatic function, a further decrease in appetite and further fat mobilization which further compounds the problem. The mild chronic fibrosing cholangitis with bridging fibrosis may also be secondary to the hepatic lipidosis and cholestasis. as a result of anorexia. It would be advisable to improve the affected animals plane of nutrition. The generalized petechial ecchymotic hemorrhage throughout the abdominal and thoracic cavities was most likely agonal in nature. The advanced state of autolysis precluded definitive evaluation histologically of the kidneys. There was no evidence of gastrointestinal parasites histologically.
2+ coccidia, 2+ Strongyles.
Liver, spleen, kidney and pericardial sac light non-hem. B. Coli.
Gut heavy non-hem. E. coli, Heavy Clostridium perfringens. No salmonella found.
Sensitivity Test Results
Organism: Escherichia coli
Test Series: 1
Lung, spleen, kidney adn pericardial sac: Light non-hem E. Coli.
Gut: Heavy non-hem E. Coli. Heavy Clostridium perfringena. No salmonella found.
001 and 002 Mae West
003 and 004 Emily Carr
|Se (ppm)||Cu (ppm)||Zn (ppm)||Fe (ppm)||Mn (ppm)||Pb (ppm)||Cd (ppm)||Ca (ppm)||Mg (ppm)||NIT||% NO3
||0.25||45||14||86||1.1||< 1||< 0.2||74||140||002 Kidneys
||2.8||17||96||1.3||< 1||< 0.2||162||115||003 Liver
||0.24||23.9||9||107||1.7||< 1||< 0.2||85||151||004 Kidneys
||2.6||15||96||1.2||< 1||< 0.2||98||149||005 Feed - Hay
|< = Less than||Se = Selenium||Cu = Copper|
|Zn = Zinc||Fe = Iron||Mn = Manganese|
|Pb = Lead||Cd = Cadmium||Ca = Calcium||Mg = Magnesium||NIT = Nitrate||NO3 = Nitrate|
Adequate mature llama/alpaca liver mineral levels are:
|Selenium||0.25 - 0.82 ppm|
|Zinc||20 - 90 ppm|
|Manganese||2.0 - 4.0 ppm|
|Cadmium||< 0.5 ppm|
|Magnesium||112 - 180 ppm|
|Copper||30 - 100 ppm|
|Iron||70 - 200 ppm|
|Lead||< 5.0 ppm|
|Calcium||50 - 70 ppm|
Nitrate toxicity in ruminant diets:
< 1.50% NO3 Lethal
< 1.00% NO3 Potentially lethal
< 0.50% NO3 May cause abortions
< 0.12% NO3 May cause infertility
< 0.05% NO3 Antagonistic to magnesium
Brian and Jane Pinkerton
29343 Galahad Crescent
Canada V4X 2E4
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org